The Torah Portion of "Beshalach" , Shabbat Shira
Excerpted and Translated from the the Teachings of Rabbi Gershon Steinberg ztz"l
L'ilui Neshamat HaGaon HaTzaddik R' Gershon Avigdor Ben Chaim ztz"l
"...And Hashem did not lead them by the way of the land..." (Shemot 13:17).
Hashem did not lead Israel according to the natural way of the world, in which the drinking water arrives from above and the food arrives from below, but in the desert it was reversed; food came from above (the manna) and drinking water came from below (Miriam's well).
"...And the children of Israel were armed..." (Shemot 13:18).
[Translator's Note: The word "armed" in Hebrew has the same root letters as the word "five".] Rashi explains that one out of five came out and the rest died in the plague of darkness, and the Targum Yonatan explains that each one had five children. The B'air Yosef asks, how is it possible that each one had exactly five children? He explains that since four out of five died in the plague of darkness and those that remained accepted upon themselves the responsibility to care for the orphans of the 4/5 that died, therefore each one had five families. In the merit of this kindness there were miracles done for them, and the Tirgum Yerushalmi adds that it was in the merit of good deeds. Also there is a verse that says "and I remembered for you the kindness of your youth".
"...And Moshe took the bones of Yosef with him..." (Shemot 13:19)
The Sages say regarding Moshe "...And a wise heart will take Mitzvot...", for everyone was busy with silver and gold while Moshe was busy with the bones of Yosef. The Sages say: "After a man's death silver and gold do not accompany him, only Torah and good deeds". That is what is meant by saying that he "took the bones of Yosef with him'", because to the upper realms [in the Next World] we take only Mitzvot. (from Kli Yakar)
"...Before Baal Tzefon..." (Shemot 14:2)
The Daat Zekainim asks how is it that Hashem said to return and gave them a road-mark to do so before Baal Tzefon? Isn't it forbidden to use a location of idol worship as a road-mark, as it says "...And you shall not mention the names of other gods"? His answer is, that this was because it was before the giving of the Torah.
"...And Pharoah said to the children of Israel..." (Shemot 14:3)
Rashi explains that this means "...And Pharoah said about the children of Israel". Another explanation is given by the Tirgum Yonatan, who says that Pharoah spoke to Datan and Aviram who remained in Egypt. It is asked, if they were wicked [and therefore wanted to stay in Egypt], shouldn't they have died in the plague of darkness? The answer is, they in truth did want to leave Egypt, and therefore didn't die in the plague of darkness. But they thought that since it was only for three days, it wasn't worthwhile to go out and afterwards to return. The secret that the Jews were going out and not returning was not told to them since they were Malshinim (Slanderers) who would have told Pharoah.
"...And Egypt will know that I am Hashem..." (Shemot 14:4)
The Gaon HaRav A.M. Shach ztzvk"l explains, for how much time did Egypt know Hashem? For just a moment before death, for until the very last moment they wanted to make war against Israel. From this we see how significant is the one moment that "they knew Hashem", for all the miracles and wonders were worthwhile just so that the Egyptians would know Hashem for one moment. All the moreso, the miracles and wonders were worthwhile for the sake of the children of Israel, who were meant to serve Hashem for all time [and not just for one moment].
"And Pharoah drew close..." (Shemot 14:10)
[Translator's Note: The word for "drew close" in Hebrew is "hikriv", which can also be translated as "to bring a sacrifice".] There are three explanations: 1) Pharoah went first to the war, 2) Pharoah offered a sacrifice to Ba'al Tzefon, and 3) Pharoah brought the Jews close to our Father in Heaven, since because of him Israel repented (did Teshuvah).
"Hashem will fight for you and you shall remain silent." (Shemot 14:14)
When they were leaving Egypt, why did the Jews need merits such as the blood of the Passover offering and the blood of circumcision, and here [at the splitting of the sea] it was said to them "you shall remain silent"? The explanation is that Hashem knew beforehand that here they would risk their lives in complete devotion to Hashem (Mesirut Nefesh), for example in the case of Nachshon [who entered the sea before it split], and where there is complete devotion to Hashem that is the greatest of all merits. (from Avnei Nezer) Similarly, it is asked, why didn't they build the Temple on Har Sinai where the Torah was given? The answer is that Har Hamoriah was a place where a Jew (Yitzchak) exposed his neck to be slaughtered for Hashem's honor, and therefore it was suitable to build the Temple there, since there is no other place which has a greater honor than that.
Before Kriat Yam Suf (the splitting of the Reed Sea)
Before the splitting of the sea at Yam Suf the children of Israel were divided into four groups. One group said we should shout against the Egyptians; the second said we should make war against them; the third said we should return to Egypt; and the fourth said we should fall into the sea, for it is preferable to die in the sea rather than dying by the sword. Moshe answered to each of the four groups in an appropriate way. To the group that said we should fall into the sea, he said "...do not be afraid, stand still and see the salvation of Hashem..." (Shemot 14:13). To the group that said we should return to Egypt he said "...for whereas you have seen the Egyptians today, you shall not see them ever again" (Shemot 14:13). To the group which said to fight with the Egyptians, he said "Hashem will fight for you..." (Shemot 14:14). To the group which said we should shout against them, he said "...and you shall remain silent" (Shemot 14:14). (from Yonatan been Uziel)
"Hashem will fight for you and you shall remain silent." (Shemot 14:14)
If Israel will guard themselves not to speak in the Bait Haknesset and remain silent, then the Holy One Blessed Be He will fight for them. (from the Zohar Hakodesh)
"...and the waters were split." (Shemot 14:21)
Rashi says all the waters in the world were split, and on a simple level this was in order to publicize the miracles throughout all the world. There are those that explain that this was in order to cause the Egyptians to err. Pharoah was a great king and had many wise counselors, so how could it be that they saw the waters splitting for Israel and were not afraid to enter? If they were seeing an open miracle for Israel how could they think that they could be saved? The answer is, that they saw that all the waters in the world were being split, and they said that this was not connected to Israel but was just a natural event. This is what the Targum means when it translates "the waters were piled up" (Shemot 15:8) as "the waters were intelligent"; the waters did something intelligent and cunning in order to cause Pharoah to err. But it can be asked, how did the waters do something that they weren't commanded to do? And also, why did the Egyptians deserve a punishment? Weren't they fulfilling the command of Hashem who said to Avraham "and they will enslave them and they will oppress them"? (Braishit 15:13) However, it is because the Egyptians went beyond the decree of enslavement. Hashem didn't tell them to throw the boys into the Nile river, or to put the children into the walls. If so, the waters said, just as the Egyptians went beyond Hashem's decree, we also will go beyond what Hashem decreed. Also, with regards to the plague of darkness it says in the Psalms that "He sent darkness and it became dark", and the Sages explained, it became even more dark, "and they [the forces that increased the darkness] didn't rebel against His word". Why wasn't it considered a rebellion? Just as the Egyptians went beyond the decree of slavery, so it was permissible for the darkness to increase itself. (from B'air Yosef)
"...and the water was a wall for them..." (Shemot 14:22 and Shemot 14:29)
One time the word for "wall" in Hebrew is written "Choma" (in the verse Shemot 14:22 it is spelled fully, Chet-Vuv-Mem-Hey), containing the letter "Vuv", and a second time it is written "Choma" (in the verse Shemot 14:29 it is spelled Chet-Mem-Hey), without the letter "Vuv", so even though it is still pronounced "Choma", it visually looks like the Hebrew word "Chayma", which means "anger" in English. The Sages say that the tribe of Dan carried the idol of Micah with them, and because of that it is written "Chayma" (anger). Another explanation of why the word for wall is written two different ways, is that the first group entered into the sea and after that it became dry land, as it is written "and the children of Israel came within the sea on dry land" (Shemot 14:22), and they risked their lives with complete devotion to Hashem (Mesirut Nefesh), and regarding that group the word for wall is written "Choma" with a "Vuv". And afterwards, the second group entered the water, and regarding them it is written "and the children of Israel walked on the dry land in the midst of the sea" (Shemot 14:29), since they waited until it was dry and afterwards entered the water, and regarding them the word for wall is written like "Chayma" without a "Vuv", which indicates that there was "anger" because they didn't risk their lives to devote themselves to Hashem. (from the Gr"a)
"The sea saw and fled..." (Tehillim 114:3)
What did it see? The coffin of Yosef. Also by Yosef it is written "...and he fled outside." (Breisheet 39:13) The Holy One Blessed Be He said, the sea will flee before someone who fled from sinning. (from Midrash Tehillim)
"...And Israel saw the great hand..." (Shemot 14:31)
What caused Nachshon to hurry and enter the water? "The great hand" of the daughter of Pharoah that stretched out her hand and Hashem lengthened her arm. Nachshon said, I will enter the sea and Hashem will help, and that is what is meant by "...And Israel saw the great hand...".
"Then sang..." (Shemot 15:1)
The word for "sang" is written in Hebrew "Yashir" (which is actually in the future tense). The Baal HaTurim says, that this word "Yashir" consists of the letter "Yud" (which has the numerical value of 10) followed by the word "Shir" (which means "song"). There are 10 Songs: 1) the Song of the Sea, 2) The Song of the Well, 3) the Song of Ha'azinu, 4) the Song of Yehoshua, 5) the Song of Devorah, 6) the Song of Channah, 7) the Song of David, 8) the Song of Shlomo, 9) the Song of Chizkiyahu, and 10) the Song of the Future to Come -- may it come speedily in our days, Amen. Therefore it is not written "Az Shar" (in English: "Then sang"), but "Az Yashir" (in English: "Then will sing"), because in the future to come we will sing again, speedily in our days, Amen.
The Merit of Saying Songs of Praise
Rav Yisrael Ben Levi says that everyone that says songs of praise (Shira) in this world merits to say songs of praise in the Next World (from Sanhedrin 91). Everyone who says the song of the sea with great happiness, has all his sins forgiven. (from Midrash Tehillim 18)
"This is my G-d, and I will glorify Him..." (Shemot 15:2)
The Sages say, be glorious before him with Mitzvot - a beautiful Tallit, a beautiful Succah, etc. And it is necessary to understand why the explanation about beautifying the Mitzvot is connected to the Torah Portion of Shira (the Song of the Sea), for it should have been appropriate to reveal this concept in one of the Torah Portions which speaks of the fulfillment of the Mitzvot, such Tzitzit, Succah, etc. The explanation is that besides enabling Israel to pass through the Sea, Hashem added many more miracles in the Sea, as is explained in the Midrash: many kinds of fruits grew, and there were many kinds of plants, spices, sweet water, and windows within the walls of the sea, etc. Since Hashem added miracles for us much more than what was necessary, we should certainly add to the Mitzvot much more than what is required by law by making each Mitzvah beautiful and glorious as much as possible. (from Oznaim L'Torah) In addition, there are those that explain that if we look at Rashi in the Torah Portion Vayeitzei (29:35), he wrote "This time I will thank because I have taken more than my portion, and from now on I need to thank". [with regards to Leah when she bore more than 1/4 of Yaakov's children] It is clarified that the concept of thankfulness comes into play especially in response to recognition that we are getting more than we deserve. Therefore at the Sea we come to the expression of thankfulness by means of beautifying the Mitzvot because of the recognition and acknowledgement that we have received more than we deserved from the Holy One Blessed Be He. In response to that, we express our will to serve Hashem more than we are commanded to and required to. And there are those that say that the reason that Israel accepted upon themselves to beautify the Mitzvot, was that the fifth miracle which was done at the Sea (look at the Rav Ovadia Bartenura in Ethics of the Fathers Chapter 5 Mishne 4) was that the waters that "froze" on the floors of the Sea were not all in one piece but were like building blocks that were interlocked, and that certainly was in order to make it beautiful for Israel.
"Moshe caused Israel to journey from Yam Suf (in English: "the Sea of Reeds"...) (Shemot 15:22)
Rashi says that the Children of Israel wanted to remain more time there in order to gather up silver and gold, and after that they came to Marah and they didn't have water, because the Holy One Blessed Be He wanted to show them that money (that is, silver and gold) isn't worth anything. For behold, they had a lot of money and they didn't have what to drink. Is it possible to drink silver and gold? (from Baalei Mussar -- The Masters of Ethical Teachings)
"...and Moshe became angry with them." (Shemot 16:20)
About what did he get angry with them? The Meshech Chachma explains that until they left over the Mannah and it became infested with worms, we can see that there was an amazing amount of Bitachon (trust) by Israel, that even though they were in a desolate wilderness and the Mannah appeared each day and was going to vanish, they didn't take more than what was necessary for that single day, and this was a constant test of their faith every day. But, when they left it over and it became infested with worms and stank, after that they saw that even if they attempted to store it up for the future, it would become infested with worms and stink, so the test of their faith was over with, and their high level of trust, and therefore, Moshe got angry with them.
Commandments regarding the Mannah
1. One Omer per person.
2. Not to leave any over till tomorrow (Datan and Aviram didn't fulfill this)
3. To prepare from the Mannah that appeared on Friday for Shabbat.
4. Not to try to gather it on Shabbat (Datan and Aviram didn't fulfill this)
5. To store a container of the Mannah, the next year, when they erected the Mishkan.
Miracles of the Mannah
They didn't take more and they didn't take less (than an Omer per person). It had all the tastes in the world except for garlic, onion, zucchini, melon, and eggplant, for these are not good for the nursing of babies (see Rashi in Beha'alotcha). On Friday, it was a doubled portion, and also on Erev Chag (the day before a Yom Tov) and Erev Yom Kippur (the day before Yom Kippur). On Shabbat the taste was different so that it tasted better than on the weekdays. On the day of Shabbat, it did not become infested with worms (even though it was left over from that which was the double portion gathered on Friday). At the end of 40 years from the 7th of Adar until the 16th of Nissan, it remained in their vessels and did not get wormy. It told everyone what his situation was, as it is said "K'zera Gad" (in English "like a coriander seed". In addition, the word "Gad" in Hebrew is similar to the Hebrew word "Magid", which means "to tell" in English).
"...go out to do battle with Amalek, tomorrow..." (Shemot 17:8)
Amalek hints at the Evil Inclination. The way of the Evil Inclination is to always postpone things till tomorrow. When the Evil Inclincation sees that someone is arousing himself to serve Hashem, it says to him "start tomorrow", in order to cool him off. And that is why it says in the verse "... go out to do battle with Amalek, tomorrow...". You should battle against it (the Evil Inclination) when it tells you "tomorrow", and not listen to it.
On Tu B'Shvat, there is a custom to eat different kinds of fruit from trees, and especially from the fruit of the Land of Israel, in order to fulfill the idea of making symbols for ourselves and to show that this day is the New Year for the Trees (in regards to the matter of Trumot and Maaserot, etc.). And it is customary to pray also for a beautiful Etrog.
Shabbat ShalomThe Torah Portion Beshalach has 116 verses. The Torah Portion Beshalach has within it 1 negative commandment.The Haftorah is "V'Devora Isha Naviah" (Shoftim 4)We say Borchi Nafshi.
May you all have a light-filled and happy Shabbat.
L'ilui Neshamat HaGaon HaTzaddik R' Gershon Avigdor Ben R' Chaim ztz"l, Nilkach L'Bait Olamo Yud Gimmel Tishrei 5772