Sunday, July 7, 2013

Devorim - Shabbat Chazon 5773

The Torah Portion of Devorim - Shabbat Chazon 5773

Chumash Devorim.

A good beginning -- we are beginning Chumash Devorim.  Chumash Devorim is also called "Mishneh Torah" (in English: "a review or repetition of the Torah").  Every Chumash has an additional name.  The Chumash Breisheet is also called "Sefer HaYashar" (in English: "the Book of the Straight"), because it speaks about the Avot (Patriarchs) who are called Straight Ones.  We see this in the Book of Yehoshua, that when the sun was made to stand still  there is a verse which says, "Is it not written in the Sefer HaYashar" (Yehoshua 10:13), and that verse is referring to the Chumash Breisheet  within the Torah Portion of Vayechi, when Yaakov said to Yosef, "However his younger brother will be greater than he"  (Breisheet 48:19) -- and the intention was that Yehoshua would descend from him (that is, from Ephraim), and that in his merit the sun would stand still.  From here we see that Chumash Breisheet is called "Sefer HaYashar" ("The Book of the Straight").  

The Names of the "Chamisha Chumshai Torah" ("The Five Books of the Torah"):

1.Breisheet -- Sefer HaYashar ("The Book of the Straight")
2. Shemot -- Sefer HaGeula ("The Book of Redemption", and and there are those that add also, "Sefer Michamot Hashem" ("The Book of the Wars of Hashem")
3. Vayikra -- Torat Kohanim ("The Torah of the Priests")
4. Bamidbar -- Chumash HaPekudim ("The Chumash of The Countings")
5. Devorim -- Mishneh Torah ("Review or Repetition of the Torah")

Why is the Torah called Chumash?  

Because it has within it five books.  [Note: the Hebrew word "Chumash", which refers to the five books of the Torah, has the same root as the Hebrew word for "five", "Chamisha".]    The Mabi"t adds that there is another reason, and that is because the Torah was given in five places: 1) in Mitzrayim (Egypt) -- the Korban Pesach (Passover Offering) and the laws regarding the firstborn offspring were given, 2) At Mara -- Shabbat, and the Parah Aduma (Red Heifer) and its laws were given, 3) at Har Sinai, 4) in the Mishkan (Tabernacle) in the Tent of Meeting, and 5) in the Plains of Moab.

"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all Yisrael..."  (Devorim 1:1)

The Sages say: "The majority [stumble in the sin of] robbery, the minority in the sin of illicit relations, and everyone in the sin of Avak Lashon Hara (the dust of forbidden speech)".  The first word of Chumash Devorim in Hebrew is "Aileh" (in English: "These are") -- and the verse continues that "Moshe spoke to ALL Israel" (that is to say, this is a hint that everyone stumbles in the sin of Avak Lashon Hara).   The letters of Aileh are Aleph, Lamed, Hey, and these are the initial letters of  the words "Avak Lashon Hara" (in English: "the dust of forbidden speech").  The Ohr HaChama brings in the Siddur (prayer book), that the Sages say that the Ketoret (incense offering) atones for Lashon Hara (forbidden speech).  There should come something in secret, that is to say, quietly, because it is forbidden for any man to enter at the time of the incense offering except for one Kohen.  And that thing (the incense offering) should atone for something which occurs secretly, for usually people speak Lashon Hara quietly.  And in the case of the Ketoret, it is written that "you should grind some of it very finely" (Shemot 30:36) -- that you need to break down the components of the incense very finely, like dust.  And this is a hint about Avak Lashon Hara (the dust of forbidden speech).

The Gr"a says, that Chumash Devorim is divided into three parts: 

1) Words of Mussar (Ethics) and rebuke, from the beginning up until the Torah Portion of Va'etchanan Chapter 5. 
2) Mitzvot of the Torah, from the fourth Aliyah of the Torah Portion of Va'etchanan, until the Torah Portion of Ki Tavo Chapter 27 Verse 9.
3) Blessings and Curses, from Chapter 27 Verse 9, till the end of the Chumash. 
And this is hinted at within the first five verses of Devorim: 
"These are the words that Moshe spoke..." (Devorim 1:1) -- this refers to the part about Mussar (Ethics) and rebuke.  
"...Moshe spoke to the Children of Israel according to everything that Hashem commanded..." (Devorim 1:3) -- this refers to the part about the Mitzvot.
"...Moshe began clarifying this Torah..." (Devorim 1:3) -- this refers to the part about the Blessings and Curses. (from Mayana Shel Torah)

"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all Israel, across the Jordan, in the desert, in the Plain, opposite (the Sea of) Reeds, between Paran and Tophel and Lavan, and Chatzerot and Di-Zahav."(Devorim 1:1)

Moshe spoke to Israel in hints:
"in the desert" -- on what they did in the desert, when they said "Who will grant that our death will be at the hand of Hashem."  (Shemot 16:3) 
"in the Plain" -- on what they did in the Plains of Moab, in the sin of Ba'al Peor.  
"opposite (the Sea of) Reeds" -- on what they did at the Sea of Reeds, when they said "Are there no graves in Egypt, etc." (Shemot 14:11)
"between Paran" -- the sin of the spies.
"Tophel and Lavan" -- when they spoke about the Manna saying "And our souls are disgusted with this light bread." (Bamidbar 21:5)
"and Chatzerot" -- this is the Machloket (dispute) of Korach.
"and Di-Zahav" -- this is the deed of the Golden Calf.

And why did Moshe speak in hints? 

Because of the honor of Israel. And it has been asked, if so, why did he go on at length afterwards?  The explanation is that, since Moshe spoke to Israel in hints they immediately did Teshuva (repented) out of love -- for when words come from the heart they enter into the heart (of the listener).  Then Moshe began to go on at length and explain the details of the sins, because when someone does Teshuva out of love, the sins are turned into merits, and therefore Moshe went on at length, so that they would have many merits. (from Mayana Shel Torah)

Another explanation for why Moshe shortened the rebuke at the beginning, is because that needs to be the way of Mussar (ethics).  When someone is brought close to the Torah it needs to be done in stages, in the beginning by means of hints, and after that when we see that he accepts it then we need to expand upon the Mussar.  (from Torat HaParsha)

"There are eleven days from Chorev..." (Devorim 1:2)  

The Kli Yakar says that there is a hint here about the eleven days that we mourn on the Churban Bait HaMikdash (Destruction of the Temple) in the year: the Nine Days of the Month of Av, the 17th of Tammuz, and the 10th of Tevet.  

Tisha B'av

Yermiyahu wrote the Megillat Eicha according to the order of the Aleph - Beit (the Hebrew alphabet), because they  transgressed the Torah which was given with the Aleph - Bet.  But the letter Pei  (which hints at the  Hebrew word for "mouth" , "Peh") comes before the letter Ayin (which hints at  the Hebrew word for "eye", "Ayin").  (And that is not in its usual sequence.)  This is because they spoke with their mouth what that they didn't see with their eye.  But in the first chapter  the Ayin comes before the Pei -- because that chapter hints about the spies who spoke also a little bit truth. (from Taamei Minhagim)

The Sages say: "Every generation that the Bait HaMikdash (Temple) is not built in its days, it's as if it was destroyed in its days."

A story is written in one of the books of the Rama:  After the destruction of the First Temple, the sages of the world's nations came to see the Temple when it was burnt.  And one of them came who was the greatest sage of the nations of the world and his name was Appleton.  And he saw how Yirmiyahu was sitting there and crying and crying without stopping.  He said to him:  "I can see about you, that you are a wise person.  How is it suitable for you to cry about stones that are burnt?"  Yirmiyahu answered him: "They say about you that you are the wisest person of all the non-Jews.  Certainly you have questions that you haven't solved."  Appleton answered him: "Yes, I have questions, but no human being in the world is able to solve them."  Yirmiyahu said to him: "Try to ask me.  Perhaps I will succeed to solve them for you."  And Appleton began with his questions, and Yirmiyahu answered him immediately on everything.  Appleton said to him: "If so, the puzzle is even greater.  If you are so wise, why are you crying about a building which is burnt?"  Yirmiyahu answered him: "All of my wisdom comes from this House (i.e. the First Temple), and how will I not cry?"

"My soul well remembers and is bowed down within me" (Eicha 3:20)

The Tzaddik R' Avraham Bardaki ztz"l would always repeat the verse in Eicha (3:20) "My soul well remembers and is bowed down within me".  Rashi says, I know that in the end You will remember us, but we don't have strength to wait so much time.  He  (Rav Avraham Bardaki ztz"l) also would repeat the last verse (Eicha 5:22): "For if You have utterly rejected us, You have [already] been exceedingly wroth against us."  Rashi explains, that in response to our sinnning You didn't need to increase your anger against us as much as You did".  If it weren't the case that this verse had stated it, it would be forbidden for us to make such an interpretation on our own.

"Why do you forget us forever, abandon us for lengthy days?  Return to us Hashem and we will return.  Renew our days as of old."  (Eicha 5:20-21)

At the end of Eichah (that is, in the verses right before the last verse, which we repeat at the end of the reading of Eichah) it is stated (Eicha 5:20-21): "Why do you forget us forever, abandon us for lengthy days?  Return us ... renew our days as of old".  The Chatam Sofer explains, that it is written "Make us rejoice like the days in which You afflicted us" (Tehillim 90:15).  And if so, after a lengthy exile like this there won't remain many days left until the end of 6,000 years to "make us rejoice". But the answer is that the Holy One Blessed Be He will make the days long in order to compensate us.  And upon this we say "Why do you forget us forever", and therefore "abandon us for lengthy days" -- that is to say, that the days will be lengthy days.  "Return us Hashem and we will return", and then "Renew our days as of old"  -- regular days will suffice to be like the ancient days.

The Torah Portion of Devorim has 105 verses.   2 negative commandments.Haftora: "Chazon Yishayahu" (Yishayahu 1).

Everyone who mourns about Jerusalem merits and sees her happiness.

May you all have a  light-filled and happy Shabbat.  
Shabbat Shalom.

L'ilui Neshamat HaGaon HaTzaddik R' Gershon Avigdor Ben R' Chaim ztz"l, Nilkach L'Bait Olamo Yud Gimmel Tishrei 5772

No comments:

Post a Comment